Neuro and Spine Surgery
What is Neuro Spine Surgery?
Neuro Spine Surgery or neurological surgery or neurosurgery is a field which deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders affecting any part of the nervous system. The nervous system consists of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and extracranial cerebrovascular system. Neuro spine surgery is done to treat disorders and diseases of the spinal cord. The procedure alleviates pain of the spinal cord and restores functionality of the suppressed nerves. Lower back and neck pathologies can also be treated with this procedure.
Types of Neuro and Spine Surgeries
- Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
- Complex Spine Surgery
- Minimally Invasive Neck and Back Surgery
- Gamma Knife
- Skull-based and Pituitary Tumors
- Stereotactic Radiosurgery
- Pain Management
- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
- Spinal Decompression Rehabilitation Therapy (IDD)
- Trigeminal Neuralgia
- Cerebral Vascular Brain Disorders
- Hydrocephalus/ Arnold Chiari Malformation
- Disc disease
- Percutaneous procedures
- Open and other interventional procedures
- Spinal malformations
- Spinal dysraphism
- Spine reconstruction and fixation
- Surgical pain management
- Spine trauma care
- Percutaneous vertebroplasty
Conditions Treated by Neuro Spine Surgery
Neuro Spine Surgery is done to treat pathologies affecting the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and extracranial cerebrovascular system. There are different types of procedures to deal with different types of conditions. Neurosurgeons perform many types of procedures to relieve symptoms, correct or repair spinal structures. Spine surgery is done to repair anomalies of the spinal cord, nerves, and vertebrae.
Some of the conditions include –
- Brain and Spine Tumors
- Degenerative disc disease
- Lumbar spinal stenosis
- Cervical spinal disc disease
- Neck pain
- Herniated pain
- Lumbar spinal stenosis
- Lower back pain
- Surgical pain management
- Spine trauma care
Surgical Procedures of Neuro Spine Surgery
- ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
- Anterior Cervical Discectomy & Fusion
- Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement, Prestige®
- Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy
- Dekompressor Discectomy
- Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release
- Interspinous Process Decompression – X-STOP®
- Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)
- Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion
- Lumbar Radiofrequency Neurotomy
- Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
- Minimally-Invasive Lumbar Microdecompression
- Minimally-Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
- PLIF: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
- Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
- Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
- Total Disc Replacement
- XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Laser Spine Surgery
Laser spine surgery has emerged as an alternative to conventional procedures wherein the doctors use slender blades and manual devices to incise the skin and rectify the tissue and bone underneath. This is a minimally invasive procedure and does not involve encroaching on the muscles and bones. The procedure is done as an outpatient and needs only a small incision.
Cervical Spine Surgery
Cervical spine surgery is done to treat pain, weakness, tingling and numbness of the spine. The surgery also corrects reduced or excess flexibility of the spine and rejuvenates nerve function. This surgery is done to treat various cervical spine disorders. Instability, trauma and degenerative disorders put extra pressure on the nerves and spinal cord.
Total Disc Replacement
Degeneration of the spine causes neck or back pain which reduces the quality of life. Total disc replacement surgery (also called artificial disc) is the latest innovation in spinal surgery. This procedure is done to alleviate pain and preserve flexibility.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Surgery
This surgery relieves the pressure on the nerve roots of the spinal cord. This surgery is done to remove injured parts of the spine. The spinal canal is expanded to relieve pressure on the nerve. Leg weakness is minimised as well as numbness and pain get better after surgery. The widely used procedure for lumbar stenosis is decompressive laminectomy.
Anterior Cervical Decompression and Arthroplasty
This procedure is done to reduce pressure on the nerve roots and spinal cord. It is done to reconstruct the spine to allow movement of the damaged portion.
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
This syndrome causes pain and tingling and other problems in the hand due to compression of the median nerve of the wrist. Tendons and median nerve from the forearm pass through a small tunnel like space in the wrist called carpal tunnel. The median nerve controls sensation and movement of the first three fingers and thumb but not the little finger. This syndrome is caused by
- Bone spurs
- Injury to the wrist
- Decreased blood flow due to smoking to the median nerve.
- Diabetes, hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis.
Gamma Knife therapy has proven to be the best treatment for brain disorders. This is not a surgical procedure. 201 focussed beams of radiation are targeted at the tumour. The beams are highly effective when they work together at a single point. The beams destroy the cancer cells and stop them from growing. The tumour recedes after some time.
Fluid accumulation in the ventricles (cavities) situated deep inside the brain is called Hydrocephalus. Ventricles may expand due to fluid accumulation which puts pressure on the brain. Elderly people and infants are at more risk of developing this, although it can occur at any time in life. Placement of a shunt to drain the fluid is the widely used treatment for hydrocephalus. Ventriculostomy is another option for hydrocephalus.
Robots have proven to be very reliable as they are accurate in measuring and controlling movement and can overcome the challenges of Neuro-rehabilitation.
They can either be in the form of a robotic arm or a joystick that can effectively surround the limb like an exoskeletal frame. The robotic sensors record joint torques, velocity and position which are collectively termed as movement data.
The vertebral discs can suffer with hernia when the mid portion of the disc protrudes through the tough exterior or is injured. This can happen anywhere along the length of the spine resulting in pain and weakness. Herniated discs can also result in other problems of the spine. In discectomy, a portion of the damaged disc or the entire disc is removed to relieve these symptoms.
Patients suffering from kyphosis, fractures, scoliosis, or other spinal problems benefit from spinal fusion surgery. This procedure involves resecting the native vertebral disc and placing a bone graft between the damaged discs to unite them. Surgeons can also implant plates, screws, cables, wires, or screws to support the structure for spinal fusion.
Spinal stenosis, herniated discs and other conditions can put pressure on the nerves and narrow the spaces between the vertebral discs. To treat this condition, neurosurgeons resect a portion of the lamina, the outermost portion of the bone that covers the spinal cord. This relieves the pressure on nerves and surrounding tissues.
As part of laminectomy, an interlaminar implant which is a U-shaped device, is placed to decompresses the spine and create room for nerves and spinal cord.
The nerve roots of the spinal canal are protected by a hollow bone called foramen. When the foramen is damaged or is constricted, it can affect nerve function. To treat this anomaly, foraminotomy is performed to modify the soft tissues and bones in the foramen. If the foramen is significantly altered or a large portion of the foramen is removed, the surgeons may term it as foraminectomy.
The procedure to correct severely deformed or misaligned spinal canal is known as osteotomy. In this procedure, the vertebrae and other spinal bones are fractured or broken at strategic points to improve posture and correct structural anomalies. The fractured bones will reshape and heal in a way which will benefit the spine.
Cost of Neuro and Spine Surgery
Neuro and spine surgery is done at affordable costs in India. There are many hospitals in India and there is no shortage of experienced surgeons who provide excellent services for patients from around the world. Hospitals in Bangalore provide excellent care, surgical facilities and technologies for treatm